Здравствуйте уважаемые подписчики!
Пришло большое количество
писем с вашими ответами. Правильный перевод отрывка из биографии короля англосаксов
прислали: Иванов Станислав, Katya Timofeeva, Мартыненко
Алина, Olga Vorebey, Кириченко Олег.
ответили на задание: Кириченко Олег, Karina Petrenko,
Katya Timofeeva, Almetova, Мартыненко Алина, Olga.
ошибки в предложениях:
I shall have teached
poem tomorrow at seven o'clock. В данном предложении допущена ошибка в определении
категории смыслового глагола. Глагол teach - неправильный и имеет формы
taught - taught (вторая и третья), следовательно, нужно было употребить
(по правилу - третью форму) и само предложение должно выглядеть так:
I shall have taught …
By the end of month I shall play
five matches in baseball. В этом предложении потерян вспомогательный глагол
have и тоже неправильно определена форма смыслового глагола. По правилу
нужно было поставить третью форму и предложение должно выглядеть так: I
shall have played five matches in baseball by the end of the month.
О том, как строятся английские предложения, мы разберём на следующем занятии.
Конечно при переводе одного и того же текста, даже самые талантливые переводчики
получают различные варианты, так что не удивляйтесь, тому, что приведённый ниже
перевод отличается от вашего.
Один из правильно выполненных переводов прислал
Иванов Станислав и я предлагаю этот перевод
Перевод биографии короля англосаксов - Альфреда"Великого"(переводИванова
Став королем Уэссекса в возрасте 21 года, Альфред
(правил с 871 по 899 годы) был решительным но очень нервозным ветераном войны
во главе остающегося сопротивления викингам в южной части Англии. В начале 878
года , Датчане руководимые королем Гутрумом захватили молниеносным ударом Чиппенхэм
в графстве Уиллшир и использовали его как безопасную базу для опустошительных
набегов на Уэссекс. Местные жители либо сдались на милость победителей либо бежали
(жители Хэмпшира бежали на остров Вайт), западные саксонцы будучи побежденными
решили извлечь выгоду из своего положения и стали совершать набеги захватывая
по возможности провизию.Только со своими королевскими телохранителями , маленькой
армией сторонников(королевских последователей) и графа Аетелнота из Сомерсета
в качестве своего союзника,Альфред отступил к Сомерсетским болотам на которых
он возможно охотился в юности. (В течении этого времени будучи озабоченным защитой
своего королевства Алльфред предположительно сжег несколько пирогов за которыми
его попросили присмотреть;этот инцидент стал легендой известной от хроникеров
начала двенадцатого столетия.)
the verb in brackets into the correct Future tense.
1. Mr. Brown (to be) in
the dining-room at 8 o'clock tomorrow.
2. I (to see) you on Friday.
Your dog (to be) with me by the time you return. Don't worry.
4. They (to
climb) the mountains all the month.
5. Don't ring her up at 12 o'clock. She
(write) her composition then.
6. At this time tomorrow the boys of our group
7. When we arrive in Leningrad, it probably (rain).
We (finish) all the housework by 6 o'clock this afternoon.
9. I (read) this
book by tomorrow evening.
10. Thousands of people (see) this exhibition by
the end of the month.
11. They (build) this house long before the end of October.
12. They (do) half of the journey when they reach the Volga.
задание: выполнить предложения и перевести продолжение биографии одного
из королей англосаксов.
А сейчас продолжение биографии всё того же короля
ALFRED 'THE GREAT' (r. 871-899)
A resourceful fighter, Alfred
reassessed his strategy and adopted the Danes' tactics by building a fortified
base at Athelney in the Somerset marshes and summoning a mobile army of men from
Wiltshire, Somerset and part of Hampshire to pursue guerrilla warfare against
the Danes. In May 878, Alfred's army defeated the Danes at the battle of Edington.
According to his contemporary biographer Bishop Asser, 'Alfred attacked the whole
pagan army fighting ferociously in dense order, and by divine will eventually
won the victory, made great slaughter among them, and pursued them to their fortress
(Chippenham) ... After fourteen days the pagans were brought to the extreme depths
of despair by hunger, cold and fear, and they sought peace'. This unexpected victory
proved to be the turning point in Wessex's battle for survival.
о традициях празднования Рождества в Англии, переводить не стоит, он дан просто
для расширения вашего кругозора.
WHAT MAKES AN ENGLISH CHRISTMAS?
It appears that each person
questioned thus will answer differently in fact. For me, it was the late night
shopping and the electric atmosphere. I remembered the animated windows of my
youth, Fairy Tales brought to life in each one. Delving back into childhood, it
was the smells of minced pies, boiling puddings and the Meat cooking late on Christmas
For Mrs Turner of Hereford it is the family getting together, the food
and drink, her daughter likes the parties; others shrug and say 'Its just for
the children'. Many still admit that it is a time for going to Church, even if
they have been wanting throughout the year. Old Mr. Thomas from East End Park,
Leeds, chuckled and said that he likes the excuse to go to the pantomime, and
Santa Claus - 'Taking the Grandchildren, you know. But the Santa Grottos are nothing
like they used to be. You could go on a Space Rocket to the Moon, or a Magic Sleigh
Ride to Santa Land at Lewis' once'.
This short survey has brought together
all the elements of what the English public consider is an English Christmas,
and here are a few short pieces about each, starting with a list of essential
elements of Christmas gathered from a poll over over two thousand.
Television and the Queens Speech
A Walk after
Midnight Mass & Carol Services
Children's activities (Pantomime
Shopping in the dark, fairylit streets
Sending out cards
Ghost Stories and Murder parties
Getting in touch with old acquaintances
and visiting people
Carol-singing, 'Sally' Army &
Hot Chestnuts Man
Getting the special double edition Radio
Times and planning the seasonal viewing & recording!
English Father Christmas became
part of the greater European Santa Claus in the 1950's. But until then he was
quite a different character. His origins were steeped in the Viking lore, brought
by these people when they conquered Britain in the 8th - 9th centuries.
understand his origins, it is necessary to learn a little about the state of the
country at that time..
Britain was a largely Saxon stronghold. Christianity
came from two sides basically, the Celtic Church and the Roman Church. Although
the Celtic Christians were brought in line with Roman practice from a decree at
the Synod of Whitby in the 7th century, Christianity was still somewhat isolated
from mainstream Europe. Many of the images in the Saxon churches were Byzantine
in style not Roman. The Byzantine Church had already begun to split from the Church
in Rome, creating Eastern and Western Christians. Roman iconography was quite
different to that of the Eastern Church, and Celtic imagery was harking back to
what the early Church considered 'pagan' imagery.
Even after the Norman
invasion in 1066, when the Normans effectively wiped out all the early imagery
and replaced it with Roman style, still oaths were commonly sworn "By God
and by Odin". Things changed only slowly.
While St Nicholas was enjoying
cult status throughout Europe, with customs developing from as early as the 9th
century, he did not arrive in Britain until much later.
The Saxons welcomed
King Frost, or Father Time, or King Winter. He would be represented by someone,
given a fine hat or crown to wear,, and brought to their firesides. They believed
that by welcoming the Winter as a personage, or elemental deity, that element
would be less harsh to them, not QUITE so cold, not QUITE so wet - just enough
to feed the earth!
The Vikings brought their god Odin. Odin was the father
of the gods, and he had twelve characters. The character for December was sometimes
known as Yalka or Jul and his month was known as Jultid. From this, we get Yuletide.
During December the Vikings believed that Odin would come to earth on his eight
legged horse, Sleipnir. He was disguised in a long blue hooded cloak, and he carried
a satchel of bread and a staff. His companion was often a Raven or a Crow. (This
description was also given for St Benedict, the founder of the great Benedictine
Order of monks and nuns! It is likely that Benedicts description was at some early
time, overlaid onto the image of Odin.)
Odin was supposed to join groups
around their fire, sitting in the background and listening in to hear if they
were content or not. He would occasionally leave a gift of bread at a poor homestead.
Here you can see already customs we associate with Father Christmas. The
hooded figure, the secret visits, the leaving of a gift.
With the Normans
came St. Nicholas. Viking and Saxon deities mingled with a Christian element to
create a saintly Parish Visitor - a sort of medieval social worker!
in the Middle Ages, a parish would hire an actor, or often a cleric from another
parish, to dress in disguise, and visit homes to see how people were doing. Maybe
someones children were sickly because they had no food, or a widow was not managing
now her husband had died - He would report back to the Parish priest, who would
keep an eye on the situation.
We have no records in Britain to tell us whether
he, as St Nicholas, was named as the giftgiver for children. Nor do we know whether
religious establishments gave gifts to children in his name on the Feastday of
St Nicholas, as was the practice in places such as Germany and Belgium etc.. Many
of these records would have been lost during the Reformation in the 16th-17th
centuries. He was never given the task of filling stockings or suchlike, and he
eventually degenerated into a sort of Master of Ceremonies for Christmas parties
at the big houses.
Father Christmas was banned by the Puritans under Cromwell
in the mid-17th century. He went 'underground' along with Minced Pies, Christmas
games and the like. Occasionally secret publishers would print Broadsheets (a
sort of newspaper) with a verse about 'Old Christmas'. He became the personification
of everything the British people held dear about Christmas.
In the 18th
century, he began to appear in the Christmas plays of itinerant players. In the
middle of the play, he would appear, heavily disguised, shouting his challenge,
"In comes I, Old Father Christmas. Be I welcome or be I not - I hope
that old Christmas will never be forgot!"
As with many customs associated
with British Christmas, the tradition of Father Christmas remained, when the saintly
or religious elements were lost. He became a benevolent, jovial character, synonymous
with the Goodwill of Christmas, but his saintly attributes were gone. He was the
modernised version of the Saxon and Viking deities, he controlled the winter elements,
and he kept people happy at a dismal time of year.
showed him as either a pagan figure with icicles or ivy around his head; or, with
the influence of the new religious movement, as a stern and forbidding saint,
as likely to punish as to reward children.
As more influence came to Britain
from America, he was presented as a fat and jolly character, who filled stockings,
and occasionally gave guest appearances at civic and public places. By the 20th
century, he was a common figure in most Department Stores the length and breadth
of the British Isles. He was often austere looking still, and he would ask children
questions about their prayers, their reading, writing and arithmetic. If they
had been naughty, he would tell them they must improve or he would not visit them
at Christmas. But most people over the age of 50 will still refer to him as 'Father
After WWII, there was a great deal of American influence, and
that, together with increasing advertisements by the Coca-Cola Company in the
British press, changed the image of Father Christmas permanently. Now, he is always
fat, always jolly, never admonishes children about whether they are good to their
parents, or questions them on their catechisms and schoolwork. He is just a 'Jolly
Elf', who goes by the name of Santa Claus, which as everybody knows, is the popular
nickname of Saint Nicholas - Santa - Saint; Claus - diminutive for Nicholas.
One of the most enduring customs in England, which has been
adapted and evolved over hundreds of years is the KISSING BOUGH.
In the early
middle ages, it was customary in Europe to hang up a small treetop, upside down
as a symbol of the Holy Trinity. This was not only used at Christmas, but was
used as a christian symbol of blessing upon the household.
In Europe, this
evolved into the Christmas Tree as we know it today (SEE CHRONOLOGY OF THE CHRISTMAS
TREE in CHRISTMAS 2000.) In Britain however, which did not have the custom of
cutting tops of fir trees to hang up, there the custom began in the 15th century
to create a hoop, or sphere woven from ash, willow or hazel, (bendy woods). In
the middle was placed a small effigy of the Christchild or the Holy Family, and
the whole hung up inside the threshold of the house. Such items were called 'Sacramentals'
and were blessed by the local priest. Anyone who called at the house during the
Christmas Season showed that they brought only Goodwill with them, by a symbolic
embrace under this Holy Bough.
Over the decades this Bough became important
also as a status symbol, as families would vie with each other to dress their
Bough more finely. Ribbons, gilded nuts and small apples were typical.
the Reformation, the Holy figures were removed for fear of breaking the strict
Puritanical rules, and facing fines or worse. A bunch of evergreens were hung
up in memory of the old Holy Bough, and the memory of an embrace of Peace lingered.
But two or three generations down the line, such memories became hazy. By the
time the Victorians took joy in acknowledging all the old customs again, the custom
of the Holy Bough had degenerated into a Kiss under the Mistletoe (which, being
evergreen, was always used in the making of the Holy Bough). The Bough became
known as first the Holly Bough, which was a logical move - Holy -Holly especially
as the bough also had Holly in it. Then it became a Kissing Bough or Bunch.
следующем занятии мы разберём ошибки, если таковые будут, разместим для вашего
прочтения наилучший перевод данного отрывка, того, кто справится с переводом лучше
всех, хотя я думаю, что трудностей у таких прилежных учеников не возникнет. И
так, желаю вам удачи.
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