Richard 3(r. 1483-1485)(uncle of Edward V)(подробнее... | 1485 байтов еще | Комментировать? | Рейтинг: 0)
III (r. 1483-1485)
Richard III usurped the throne from the young Edward
V, who disappeared with his younger brother while under their ambitious uncle's
On becoming king, Richard attempted genuine reconciliation
with the Yorkists by showing consideration to Lancastrians purged from office
by Edward IV, and moved Henry VI's body to St George's Chapel at Windsor. The
first laws written entirely in English were passed during his reign. In 1484,
Richard's only legitimate son Edward predeceased him.
Edward 5 (deposed)(r. April-June 1483)(Комментировать? | Рейтинг: 0)
EDWARD V (r. April-June 1483)
Edward V was a minor, and his uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester, was made Protector. Richard had been loyal throughout to his brother Edward IV including the events of 1470-71, Edward's exile and their brother's rebellion (the Duke of Clarence, who was executed in 1478 by drowning, reputedly in a barrel of Malmsey wine). However, he was suspicious of the Woodville faction, possibly believing they were the cause of Clarence's death. In response to an attempt by Elizabeth Woodville to take power, Richard and Edward V entered London in May, with Edward's coronation fixed for 22 June. However, in mid-June Richard assumed the throne as Richard III (reigned 1483-85). Edward V and his younger brother Richard were declared illegitimate, taken to the Royal apartments at the Tower of London (then a Royal residence) and never seen again. (Skeletons, allegedly theirs, found there in 1674 were later buried in Westminster Abbey.)
THE YORKISTS : Edward 4 (deposed)(r. 1461-1470 and 1471-1483)(great grandson of Edmund of York, Edward III's youngest son)(подробнее... | 1681 байтов еще | Комментировать? | Рейтинг: 0)
EDWARD IV (r. 1461-1470 and 1471-1483)
Edward IV was able to restore
order, despite the temporary return to the throne of Henry VI (reigned 1470-71,
during which time Edward fled to the Continent in exile) supported by the Earl
of Warwick, 'the Kingmaker', who had previously supported Edward and who was killed
at the Battle of Barnet in 1471. Edward also made peace with France; by a shrewd
display of force to exert pressure, Edward reached a profitable agreement with
Louis XI at Picquigny in 1475.
At home, Edward relied heavily on his own personal
control in government, reviving the ancient custom of sitting in person 'on the
bench' (i.e. in judgement) to enforce justice. He sacked Lancastrian office-holders
and used his financial acumen to introduce tight management of royal revenues
to reduce the Crown's debt. Building closer relations with the merchant community,
he encouraged commercial treaties; he successfully traded in wool on his own account
to restore his family's fortunes and enable the King to 'live of his own', paying
the costs of the country's administration from the Crown Estates profits and freeing
him from dependence on subsidies from Parliament.
Elizabeth I's Speech to her Last Parliament (The Golden Speech).(подробнее... | 6575 байтов еще | Комментировать? | Рейтинг: 0)
Q U E E N E
E L I Z A B E T H S
S P E E C H
T O H E R L A S T
R L I A M E N T.
The 30 of November 1601; her Maiestie being set vnder State
in the Councell Chamber at Whitehall, the Speaker, accompanied with Privy Councellours,
besides Knights and Burgesses of the lower House to the number of eight-score,
presenting themselves at her Maeisties feet, for that so graciously and speedily
shee had heard and yeelded to her Subiects desires, and proclaimed the same in
their hearing as followeth.
Elizabeth1(r. 1558-1603)(Henry's daughter by Anne Boleyn)(подробнее... | 6968 байтов еще | Комментировать? | Рейтинг: 5)
I (r. 1558-1603)
Elizabeth I - the last Tudor monarch - was born at Greenwich
on 7 September 1533, the daughter of Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn.
Her early life was full of uncertainties, and her chances of succeeding to the
throne seemed very slight once her half-brother Edward was born in 1537. She was
then third in line behind her Roman Catholic half-sister, Princess Mary. Roman
Catholics, indeed, always considered her illegitimate and she only narrowly escaped
execution in the wake of a failed rebellion against Queen Mary in 1554.
Mary1(r. 1553-1558)Henry's daughter by Queen Catherine)(подробнее... | 2879 байтов еще | Комментировать? | Рейтинг: 0)
Mary I was the first Queen Regnant (that is, a queen reigning
in her own right rather than a queen through marriage to a king). Courageous and
stubborn, her character was moulded by her earlier years: an Act of Parliament
in 1533 had declared her illegitimate and removed her from the succession to the
throne (she was reinstated in 1544, but her half-brother Edward removed her from
the succession once more shortly before his death), whilst she was pressurised
to give up the Mass and acknowledge the English Protestant Church.
Jane(r. 10-19 July 1553)(Комментировать? | Рейтинг: 0)
LADY JANE GREY (r. 10-19 July 1553)
The Accession of Lady Jane Grey was engineered by the powerful Duke of Northumberland, President of the King's Council, in the interests of promoting his own dynastic line. Northumberland persuaded the sickly Edward VI to name Lady Jane Grey as his heir. As one of Henry VIII's great-nieces, the young girl was a genuine claimant to the throne. Northumberland then married his own son, Lord Guilford Dudley, to Lady Jane. On the death of Edward, Jane assumed the throne and her claim was recognised by the Council. Despite this, the country rallied to Mary, Catherine of Aragon's daughter and a devout Roman Catholic. Jane reigned for only nine days and was later executed with her husband in 1554.
Edward6(r. 1547-1553)(Henry's son by Jane Seymour)(подробнее... | 2169 байтов еще | Комментировать? | Рейтинг: 0)
VI (r. 1547-1553)
Edward VI was intellectually precocious (fluent in Greek
and Latin, he kept a full journal of his reign) but not physically robust. His
short reign was dominated by nobles using the Regency to strengthen their own
positions. The King's Council, previously dominated by Henry, succumbed to existing
factionalism. On Henry's death, Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford and soon to be
Duke of Somerset, the new King's eldest uncle, became Protector. Seymour was an
able soldier; he led a punitive expedition against the Scots, for their failure
to fulfil their promise to betroth Mary, Queen of Scots to Edward, which led to
Seymour's victory at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547 - although he failed
to follow this up with satisfactory peace terms.
Henry8(r. 1509-1547)(Henry VII's second son)(подробнее... | 7614 байтов еще | Комментировать? | Рейтинг: 0)
VIII (r. 1509-1547)
Henry's interest in foreign policy was focused on Western
Europe, which was a shifting pattern of alliances centred round the kings of Spain
and France, and the Holy Roman Emperor. (Henry was related by marriage to all
three - his wife Catherine was Ferdinand of Aragon's daughter, his sister Mary
married Louis XII of France in 1514, and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V was
Catherine's nephew.) An example of these shifts was Henry's unsuccessful Anglo-Spanish
campaigns against France, ending in peace with France in 1520, when he spent huge
sums on displays and tournaments at the Field of the Cloth of Gold. Henry also
invested in the navy, and increased its size from 5 to 53 ships (including the
Mary Rose, the remains of which lie in the Portsmouth Naval Museum).
THE TUDORS(1485-1603) : Henry7(r. 1485-1509)(grandson of Henry V, wife's second husband)(подробнее... | 1636 байтов еще | Комментировать? | Рейтинг: 0)
VII (r. 1485-1509)
Although supported by Lancastrians and Yorkists alienated
by Richard III's usurpation, Henry VII's first task was to secure his position.
In 1486 he married Elizabeth of York, eldest daughter of Edward IV, thus uniting
the Houses of York and Lancaster. Henry's reign (1485-1509) was troubled by revolts,
sometimes involving pretenders (such as Perkin Warbeck and Lambert Simnel) who
impersonated Edward V or his brother. In 1485, Henry formed a personal bodyguard
from his followers known as the 'Yeomen of the Guard' (the oldest military corps
in existence today).
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